25 June 1947: The Netherlands; The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank's diary, is published

Anne Frank's diary has become an iconic symbol of the horrors of the Nazi occupation and the persecution of the Jewish people during World War II. The diary provides a candid and intimate glimpse into Anne's life while in hiding, as well as her hopes, fears, and dreams during a tumultuous time in history. Anne began writing in her diary on 12 June 1942, just a few weeks before she and her family went into hiding. She chose a red checkered autograph book with a lock and began her diary with a single sentence: "I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support." From that moment on, Anne poured her heart and soul into her diary, documenting her daily life, her relationships with her family members and fellow hiding occupants, her thoughts on the war and the outside world, and her own personal struggles as a teenage girl. The Frank family went into hiding on 6 July 1942, after…

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"27 January 1945: Auschwitz is Liberated by the Soviet Red Army" by Scott Lyons

On 27 January 1945, the Soviet army entered Auschwitz concentration camp and liberated around 7,000 prisoners still alive in the Main Camp, Birkenau, and Monowitz. For years, this complex had served as a killing center for Nazi Germany, where over 1.1 million people had been murdered, mostly Jews. The prisoners who were mostly ill and dying greeted them as true liberators. This historic moment marked the end of the deadliest phase of the Holocaust, which saw millions of Jews and others brutally killed by Nazi Germany between 1940 and 1945. By January 1945, with the approaching Red Army, the SS began evacuating Auschwitz, forcing nearly 60,000 prisoners to march west. Thousands had already been killed in the days before the death marches began. Before and soon after 27 January, Soviet soldiers also liberated about 500 prisoners in the Auschwitz sub-camps, including Stara Kuźnia, Blachownia Śląska, Świętochłowice, Wesoła, Libiąż, Jawiszowice, and Jaworzno. However, it was in the Main…

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"19 April - 16 May 1943: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Takes Place" by Scott Lyons

In the backdrop of World War II, German authorities systematically initiated the process of ghettoization across occupied Poland, striving to isolate and control the Jewish population. The establishment of the Warsaw Ghetto in October 1940 marked the beginning of a horrific chapter for over 400,000 Jews, who were forcibly relocated into an area of merely 3.3 square kilometers. This concentration, the largest of its kind, subjected its inhabitants to inhumane living conditions, rampant disease, and a death toll exacerbated by starvation and brutal enforcement by Nazi forces under the command of Odilo Globocnik and Ludwig Hahn. The situation deteriorated further with the onset of Operation Reinhard, a ruthless campaign aimed at the extermination of Polish Jews. The Warsaw Ghetto, once a bustling hub of Jewish life, became emblematic of the Nazi regime's genocidal cruelty. The mass deportations to Treblinka, especially during the operation known as Grossaktion Warschau, carried out…

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11 April 1945: Buchenwald concentration camp is liberated

Above: Buchenwald, 11 April 1945. American soldiers of the U.S. 9th Armored Infantry Battalion, from the 6th Armored Division, part of the U.S. Third Army, march into Buchenwald upon liberation of the camp. Source: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Provenance: Virginia Longest. Source Record ID: Collections: 1992.9. Click to expand. Above: Survivors of Buchenwald scrounge for food after liberation. The original caption reads, "A group of prisoners preparing extra nourishment. They are given black bread and horse meat hash from the central mess." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Provenance: Lee T. Stinchfield. Click to expand. During the war's last months in 1945, camp prisoners were either evacuated to other locations by their German and SS captors, or shot, or merely left abandoned locked in their disease- and death-ridden prisons. The United States Holocaust…

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Unconditional extermination: Operation Reinhard and the SS camps at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka - 1 hour video

Lunchbox Lecture: Unconditional Extermination: Operation Reinhard and the SS Camps at Belzec, Sobibor, and TreblinkaBelzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka, known as the Operation Reinhard camps, are much less familiar to American audiences than Auschwitz. Yet the SS murdered more than 1.5 million Jews in these camps during World War II. This presentation will offer a detailed history of these three killing centers in 1942–1943 and where they might fit in the larger history of the Holocaust.This Lunchbox Lecture is free and open to the public to attend in The National WWII Museum’s Karen H. Bechtel and William M. Osborne III Media Auditorium. https://fb.watch/foTwL93eqT/

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4 August 1944: Anne Frank and her family are discovered in hiding; Amsterdam, Netherlands

AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 26 October 2016: Anne Frank handwriting in her famous diary, Madame Tussauds Wax Museum in Amsterdam. Photo licensed to War History Network. (Click to enlarge) Right: Anne Frank in 1940, while at 6. Montessorischool, Niersstraat 41-43, Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Photograph by unknown photographer. Photograph in the Public Domain. (Click image to expand) Would it have made a difference to SS officials in 1944 that Otto Frank--Anne Frank's father--served Germany in the First World War as a lieutenant? Otto served in an artillery unit on the Western Front and later with the German infantry at the Battle of the Somme. Following the Somme, he was made an officer and served at the Battle of Cambrai. To the casual observer of history, one would think this man and his family would not have been deported from the Netherlands upon their discovery. But it did happen. Otto, his wife Edith, their two daughters Margot and Anne were betrayed and given up to the SS in…

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10 April 1945: Buchenwald Concentration Camp is liberated

Above: Weimar, Thuringia, Germany today: National Buchenwald Memorial near former concentration camp. Sculpture by Fritz Cremer. Photo licensed to WW2 History Network.  |   Buchenwald Photo Album by Erwin Leydekkers  |  VIDEO: WWII veteran recalls liberation of Buchenwald Above: 1940: Newly arrived Polish prisoners undressing before they are washed and shaved. Photo within the Public Domain. Established in July, 1937, the concentration camp saw witness to the deaths of 55,465 by the SS. The camp was liberated on 4 April 1945 by the U.S. 89th Infantry Division. On 12 April 1945, famed American journalist Edward R. Murrow gave one of his most moving accounts: "I asked to see one of the barracks. It happened to be occupied by Czechoslovaks. When I entered, men crowded around, tried to lift me to their shoulders. They were too weak. Many of them could not get out of bed. I was told that this building had once stabled 80 horses. There were 1,200 men in it, five to a bunk. The stink was…

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