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FEATURE SERIES: CLASSICAL MILITARY HISTORY, c.1000 BCE-500 CE


CLASSICAL MILITARY HISTORY, c.1000 BCE-500 CE· Published 13 July 2024 at 11:58am EDT · COMMENT

“The Roman Siege and Storm of Carthage during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE” by Prof. Brian Todd Carey

ABOVE: The ruins of the Punic Quarter on the Byrsa Hill, Carthage, Tunisia. After the fall of Carthage to the Romans, the city became the provincial capital of Rome’s first North African province and continue to have a vibrant economic life for hundreds of years. Source: War History Network licensed photograph.

In 149 BCE the Roman Republic initiated a third and final Punic war against its long-time rival, Carthage, culminating in an event rare in history: the eradication of an entire civilization.  Unlike the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) between Rome and Carthage which lasted twenty-three years and seventeen years respectively and involved campaigns throughout the Western Mediterranean, the Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) lasted only four years and was fought entirely in North Africa.  The Third Punic War was deliberately provoked by a Roman state expanding its imperium against a twice humiliated enemy.  ☞ Read the full article  

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II 


WAR IN THE PACIFIC · Published 18 August 2022 at 8:04pm EDT · COMMENT AND JOIN OUR CONVERSATION

"24 July 1944: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Teamwork: The Battle of Tinian Begins"

Marines wading ashore. USMC Archives: Tinian USMC Photo No. 10-6. From the William Luc Collection (COLL/5424), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. Official USMC photograph.

The Battle of Tinian, fought between 24 July and 1 August 1944, was central to the Marianas campaign, and critical in undermining Japanese defenses and enabling American forces to gain a strategic foothold. A prelude to victory, the capture of Saipan set the stage for the assault on Tinian, a mere three miles away. The proximity of Tinian to Saipan rendered it a pivotal target for U.S. forces. The island's terrain, relatively flat compared to its neighbors, was perfectly suited for airfield construction, particularly for the deployment of the cutting-edge B-29 bombers. Japan's existing runways on Tinian were of great tactical interest to the American military, signaling the potential to position U.S. bombers within range of Japan's home islands.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR I: 1914 - 1918 


WORLD WAR I · Published 4 June 2023 at 11:15am EDT · COMMENT - LET US KNOW YOUR THOUGHTS

28 July 1914: Global conflagration: World War One begins

ABOVE: Meuse-Argonne front, 1918. American Corporal Erland Johnson showing the strain of battle on guard in his trench. U.S. Signal Corps photograph. Source: War History Network license.

World War One was one of the deadliest conflicts in human history. The war, which lasted from 1914 to 1918, resulted in an estimated nine million soldiers killed and 23 million wounded. Additionally, five million civilians died as a result of the fighting, hunger, and disease. Millions more died from genocide, and the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was also exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war. The origins of the First World War can be traced back to the complex and shifting alliances among European powers in the years leading up to the conflict. These alliances were rooted in centuries of conflict and competition, as well as in the economic and political shifts of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.    ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II 


BATTLE FOR THE SEAS · Published 4 June 2023 at 12:39pm EDT · COMMENT AND JOIN OUR CONVERSATION

"30 July 1945: The USS Indianapolis is Torpedoed and Sunk"

ABOVE: Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, 10 July 1945. The USS Indianapolis (CA-35) after her final overhaul and repair of combat damage. The photo was taken before the ship delivered atomic bomb components to Tinian and just 20 days before she was sunk by a Japanese submarine. Source: Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives

The USS Indianapolis, a Portland-class heavy cruiser, was commissioned into the United States Navy in 1932. It bore witness to pivotal moments of World War II, playing a crucial role as a flagship across various operations within the Pacific Theater. Notable among its engagements were the Aleutian Islands campaign and the formidable Battle of Okinawa. Yet, despite its decorated service, the USS Indianapolis met a harrowing fate, culminating in one of the most heartbreaking naval tragedies in American military annals—the devastating sinking in July of 1945. In the dead of night on the 30 July 1945, amid the fathomless Pacific, the USS Indianapolis was dealt a crippling blow by Japanese submarine I-58.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II 


WORLD WAR II · Published 2 August 2022 at 9:29pm EDT · COMMENT

"1 August 1944: The Warsaw Uprising begins"

ABOVE: Warsaw Uprising: German soldiers at Theater Square with the National Theater visible in the back. This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. Click to enlarge.

The Warsaw Uprising stands as one of the more tragic events of World War II, exemplifying the extraordinary courage and resilience of the Polish Home Army and civilians under brutal German occupation. Not to be confused with the Jewish-only Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943, the Warsaw Uprising was launched on 1 August 1944, this valiant attempt to liberate Warsaw was both a testament to human spirit and a tragic tale of betrayal and loss. The Home Army offensive commenced on the afternoon of 1 August 1944. Initially planned as a brief, week-long “mopping-up” operation, this assessment proved to be a significant miscalculation. The German forces opted to mount a robust defense of "fortress" Warsaw, especially as the Soviets paused their advance.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II 


WAR IN THE PACIFIC · Published 14 May 2023 at 11am EDT · COMMENT

"7 August 1942: Six Months of Hell: The Ground Battle of Guadalcanal"

ABOVE: Marine Patrol Crossing Lunga River, Guadalcanal, circa 1942. “1775-1943, November 10, the 168th Birthday of the United States Marine Corps: These photos depict some of the events in the history of the Marine Corps during the past year. MARINES ON THE MARCH: Through jungle thickets, swamps and burning sands, the fighting Leathernecks march on to their goals. With rifle and full packs, on day and nights of endless marching it is plain to see why they are called the toughest fighting men in this world."A picture taken by me personally. It is a patrol crossing the Lunga river upstream a way and this was quite a bit later in the campaign." Source: From the Thayer Soule Collection (COLL/2266) at the Archives Branch, Marine Corps History Division. OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH. Click to enlarge.

The Battle of Guadalcanal was the earliest major ground battle of the Pacific War, fought between 7 August 1942, and 9 February 1943. It was a pivotal battle that saw the Allies, primarily the United States, take a crucial step towards victory in the Pacific Theater. The battle was the first offensive launched by the U.S. in the Pacific, and it was also the first time that the Japanese Imperial Army had been defeated on land. Additionally, the battle was a turning point in the war, and it marked the first stage of failure for the Japanese Empire. The Japanese had been using Guadalcanal as an airbase to launch attacks on Allied forces, and they had also been using the island to transport supplies and troops to other areas in the Pacific.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: THE VIETNAM WAR 


THE VIETNAM WAR · Published 11 July 2023 at 11pm EDT · COMMENT

"9 August 1968: Last Phase of the Tet Offensive; Looking Back at the Campaign"

ABOVE: Hue, Vietnam on 4 February 1968. U.S. Army Soldiers exchange instructions by phone, near the U.S. Army base of Kon Tum during the Vietcong Tet offensive. (Photo by Bob WILDAU / AFP) (Photo by BOB WILDAU/AFP). Source: Manhhai on flickr. In the Public Domain.

The Tet Offensive, launched by communist North Vietnamese forces on 31 January 1968, was a series of attacks meant to weaken the morale of South Vietnam and its allies, ultimately leading to a communist victory. The attacks were meant to take place simultaneously throughout the country, targeting major cities and military installations. Among the most notable of these attacks were the three battles that took place in Khe Sanh, Hue, and Saigon. These battles are remembered as some of the fiercest encounters of the entire war, with U.S. and South Vietnamese troops fighting hand-to-hand against North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces. The Communist forces of North Vietnam and the NLF launched the Tet Offensive with the aim of triggering a popular uprising and overthrowing the South Vietnamese government.    ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: MODERN WAR & ARMED CONFLICT


MODERN WAR & ARMED CONFLICT · Published 21 July 2024 at 3:19pm EDT · COMMENT

"26 August 2021: Abbey Gate Disaster - 13 American Service Members Killed at Kabul Airport"

ABOVE: 26 August 2021: HAMID KARZAI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, Afghanistan (August 27, 2021) U.S. service members assigned to Joint Task Force-Crisis Response are pallbearers for the service members killed in action during operations at Hamid Karzai International Airport, Aug. 27. U.S. service members are assisting the Department of State with a Non-Combatant Evacuation operation (NEO) in Afghanistan. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by 1stLt. Mark Andries). In the Public Domain.

The 2021 Kabul airport attack is recorded as one of the most lethal suicide bombings in Afghanistan's history. The assault resulted in the death of at least 183 individuals, comprising 170 Afghan civilians and 13 U.S. military personnel. The Islamic State – Khorasan Province (ISIS-K) claimed responsibility for the attack. It marked the first U.S. military fatalities in the War in Afghanistan since February 2020 and significantly hindered the evacuation operations underway in the nation. The incident took place on 26 August 2021, at 17:50 local time, amidst the Afghanistan evacuation efforts. A mix of local and international civilians had congregated at Abbey Gate, an entry point to the airport, awaiting evacuation. It was here that a suicide bomber, known as Abdul Rahman al-Logari, set off an explosive device. The blast was so intense that it propelled several individuals into the air, resulting in numerous fatalities and injuries. Among the victims were Afghan civilians, US military personnel, and citizens from various nations.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: D-DAY AND THE EUROPEAN THEATER


D-DAY AND THE EUROPEAN THEATER · Published 2 September 2022 at 8:32pm EDT · COMMENT

"1 September 1939: Germany invades Poland - World War II Comes to West-Central Europe"

Somewhere over Poland, 16 September 1939. German machine gunner in a Luftwaffe aircraft during first days of Nazi Germany's invasion. Source: War History Network license.

In September 1938, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned from Munich after a series of discussions with Adolf Hitler. Documented on film, Chamberlain famously waved the final agreement and proclaimed he had secured "peace for our time." This image, striking and ultimately misleading, has cemented Chamberlain’s reputation as the figure most responsible for appeasing Hitler. However, the broader appeasement policy—seeking peace with dictators by any means necessary—preceded Chamberlain by several years. Its roots can be traced back to the "Versailles Guilt" Britain experienced after World War I. By the 1930s, two additional factors influenced this policy: the decline in British military power due to prolonged spending cuts, and growing pacifist sentiment across Britain. Consequently, appeasement appeared to be the only feasible choice for many British politicians, even if they did not share Chamberlain’s ethical enthusiasm for it.    ☞ Read the full article

ABOVE: Warsaw, Poland. September, 1939. German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. PK Hugo J.ger, 200-SFF-52. Source: US National Archives Identifier: 559369.

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR I 


WORLD WAR I · Published 3 July 2023 at 10:02pm EDT · COMMENT

"5 - 12 September 1914: Trench Warfare Begins on the Western Front - The First Battle of the Marne"

Battle of the Marne. French soldiers giving first aid to wounded German soldiers. Source: War History Network license.

Following the Western Front's first outbreak of fighting at the Battle of the Frontiers (Battle of Mulhouse; Battle of Haelen; Battle of Lorraine; Battle of the Ardennes; Battle of Charleroi; and the Battle of Mons) in France and Belgium, the First Battle of the Marne took place. Fought from 5 to 12 September 1914, Germany and the Franco-British alliance battled in the Marne River valley area spanning a distance of 140 miles from Paris to Verdun. The German invasion of France aimed to destroy the French and British armies, occupy Paris within 40 days, and win the war quickly. The Germans initially succeeded in the Battles of Mons and the Frontiers, advancing deep into France and Belgium.    ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WAR IN THE PACIFIC


WAR IN THE PACIFIC · Published 18 June 2023 at 8:59pm EDT · COMMENT

"15 September - 27 November 1944: The Battle of Peleliu"

ABOVE: USMC Archives: First Wave Moves in for the Attack, Peleliu, 1944. "Pounding Peleliu-As supporting naval and air units pave the way with high explosives, Marine-laden assault craft form the first wave and move in for the attack on Peleliu." From the Photograph Collection (COLL/3948), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH.

ABOVE: USMC Archives: Marines at a Browning M1919A4 .30 caliber medium machine gun. Peleliu USMC Photo No. 2-5. From the Frederick R. Findtner Collection (COLL/3890), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH.

The Battle of Peleliu was a pivotal moment in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Codenamed Operation Stalemate II, the battle was fought between the United States and Japan from 15 September to 27 November 1944. The objective was to capture the airfield on the small coral island, which was a part of a larger offensive campaign known as Operation Forager. However, the fierce resistance from the Japanese Army, which had developed new island-defense tactics and well-crafted fortifications, led to an extended battle. The 1st Marine Division led the American forces, and Major General William Rupertus predicted that the island would be secured within 4 days. However, the Japanese defenders fought with such ferocity and devotion to the Emperor that the battle lasted more than two months. The U.S. Army faced heavy casualties, with the island becoming known as the "Emperor's Island" due to the Japanese defenders' clung to their positions until death.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: D-DAY & THE WAR IN WESTERN EUROPE


D-DAY & THE WAR IN WESTERN EUROPE· Published 19 June 2023 at 6:48pm EDT · COMMENT

17 September 1944: Jump to Tragedy: Operation Market Garden

ABOVE:The HQ Divisional Artillery of the 101st Airborne Division troops that landed behind German lines in Holland examine what is left of one of the gliders that "cracked up." Army Film and Photographic Unit : Smith D M (Sgt). This work created by the United Kingdom Government is in the public domain.

Operation Market Garden, one of the most ambitious military plans of World War II, was designed to bring the war on the Western Front to an end by the end of 1944. However, the operation turned out to be a costly failure that resulted in the loss of almost one-third of the British 1st Airborne Division, an American unit, and thousands of other Allied troops. The faulty planning, poor leadership, and unpreparedness led to the loss of thousands of troops, equipment, and supplies. The operation was too ambitious, and the risks that were taken were not justified. In detailing Allied losses at Market Garden, Rick Atkinson writes "... two thirds of those fighting for the 1st Airborne had been killed or captured, and the casualties included eight of nine battalion commanders and twenty-six of thirty rifle company commanders. Allied airborne losses in MARKET approached 12,000, more than half of them British; moreover, in 17,000 airsories, 261 planes and 658 crewmen were lost. Casulaties in Horrocks's XXX Corps totaled 1,500 plus 70 tanks. Cornelius Ryan, whose A Bridge Too Far remains the classic narrative of the battle, put total Allied losses at 17,000 in nine days. (Atkinson 2013, 286)   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 


THE U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861 - 1865 · Published 23 June 2023 at 11:50pm EDT · COMMENT

"19-20 September 1863: River of Death: The Battle of Chickamauga"

ABOVE: Battle of Chickamauga. 19407 U.S. Copyright Office. Copyrighted 1890 by Kurz & Allison, Art Publishers, Chicago, IL. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1928."

The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on 19 - 20 September 1863, was a turning point in the American Civil War. The Union forces, under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans, were defeated by the Confederate Army of Tennessee, led by Gen. Braxton Bragg, in what would become one of the bloodiest battles of the war in terms of casualties. This battle marked the end of the Union offensive, known as the Chickamauga Campaign, in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia. The battle was a significant victory for the Confederacy, as it halted the Union's advance into southern territory and prevented them from taking the city of Chattanooga. It was also the first major battle fought in Georgia during the Civil War. The battle involved the second-highest number of casualties after the Battle of Gettysburg, with over 34,000 casualties and over 18,000 killed or wounded.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WAR ON THE EASTERN FRONT


WAR ON THE EASTERN FRONT· Published 24 July 2023 at 9:37pm EDT · COMMENT

"30 September 1941: The Largest Battle Between Two Armies of All Time Begins: The Battle of Moscow"

ABOVE: Red Army soldiers man heavy artillery in front of the Red Army Theater at Ploshchad Kommuny on Suvorov Square.

The discourse amongst historians has revolved around identifying the turning points of World War II, spanning from 1941-42 to the spring of 1943. Winston Churchill considered the Battle of Kursk in 1943 following Stalingrad as the decisive moment. Richard Overy, on the other hand, believes that the years between 1942 and 1944 had several turning points, and specifically, 1943 and the Battle of Stalingrad. In his subsequent work, Overy acknowledges the significance of the Battle of Kursk that took place in July 1943 as the turning point of the War. Alternatively, Klaus Reinhardt argues that it was the Siege of Moscow that led to the ultimate failure and collapse of the Wehrmacht. Notably, regardless of one's stance in this debate, the Battle for Moscow holds tremendous importance in World War II's historic narrative, given its epic scale and impact. (Stahel 2009, 24-25)     ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: MODERN WAR AND CONFLICT


MODERN WAR AND CONFLICT · Published 25 February 2023 at 4:47pm EDT · COMMENT

"3 October 1993: Black Hawk Down - The Battle of Mogadishu"

Mogadishu, Somalia. 3 October 1993. Operation Code Irene: the Battle of Mogadishu. Members (crouched along the walls and building) of Task Force Ranger under fire in Somalia. U.S. Army Rangers Photo. Source: Wikimedia. In the Public Domain. Click to enlarge.

The Battle of Mogadishu, also known as the Black Hawk Down incident and in Somali as Maalintii Rangers ('Day of the Rangers'), was a significant conflict during Operation Gothic Serpent. It took place on 3-4 October 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia, and saw United States forces, under the support of UNOSOM II, engage with the Somali National Alliance (SNA) and local militia from southern Mogadishu. In 1992, the U.S., in partnership with the U.N., launched a humanitarian mission to address the severe famine in Somalia. This effort quickly escalated into a conflict when militias under Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid began assaulting and killing U.N. peacekeepers. Consequently, the mission, renamed Operation Gothic Serpent, redirected Task Force Ranger to prioritize the capture of Aidid and his chief lieutenants.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II - AERIAL WARFARE


AERIAL WARFARE THROUGOUT HISTORY ·  Published 16 October 2022 at 12:59pm EDT · COMMENT

"14 October 1943: The Second Schweinfurt Raid (Black Thursday)"

ABOVE: 9 October 1943: B-17 Bomber during the first big raid on Germany by the U.S. 8th Air Force. The raid destroyed most of the Marienburg Focke-Wulf aircraft factory. Source: War History Network license. Click to enlarge.

The Second Schweinfurt Raid, also known as "Black Thursday," occurred on 14 October 1943, during World War II. This air battle took place over Nazi Germany and involved the United States 8th Air Force and the German Luftwaffe fighter arm (Jagdwaffe). The objective was a strategic bombing raid on ball bearing factories in Schweinfurt, which were crucial for the production of war machinery. This attack followed an earlier mission in August, known as the Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission, which, according to American wartime intelligence, had reduced bearing production by 34 percent but at a significant cost to American bombers. A subsequent raid was postponed as American forces needed time to rebuild.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: WORLD WAR II


WAR IN THE PACIFIC · Published 4 July 2023 at 9:08pm EDT · COMMENT

"23 - 26 October 1944: End of the Japanese Navy - The Naval Battle of Leyte Gulf"

ABOVE: Task Group 38.3 entering Ulithi anchorage after the Philippine invasion and Battle of Leyte Gulf. Source: War History Network license.

During World War II, Japan suffered defeat in the Pacific in part due to decisive victories of the U.S. Navy's aircraft carriers. These carriers proved to be an indispensable asset for the U.S. military, enabling it to establish supremacy over the seas and project military power across vast distances. The Pacific battles fought between the U.S. and Japan were characterized by fierce naval combat, with the Americans leveraging their superior technology and tactics to outmaneuver and overpower their opponents. The use of aircraft carriers enabled the U.S. to launch devastating aerial attacks on enemy ships and shore installations, paving the way for a successful military campaign in the Pacific. The Naval Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in World War II and one of the largest in history and a decisive victory for the Allies, and it had far-reaching implications for the course of the War in the Pacific.    ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: EARLY MODERN AND NAPOLEONIC WARFARE: 1500-1815


EARLY MODERN AND NAPOLEONIC WARFARE: 1500-1815 · Published 9 September 2023 at 4:05pm EDT · COMMENT

"24 October 1648: End of The Thirty Years' War: The Peace of Westphalia is signed" by Scott Lyons

ABOVE: Muenster, Germany: 30 April 2022. View to the room called Friedenssaal ("Peace Room"), where the Peace of Westphalia was signed. Source: War History Network license. Click to enlarge.

The Peace of Westphalia is one of the most significant events in European history, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War. The two peace treaties were signed in October 1648, in the Westphalian cities of Osnabruck and Munster. These treaties ended a catastrophic period of European history that killed around eight million people, bringing peace to the Holy Roman Empire. The negotiation process was lengthy and complex, taking place in two cities because each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control. In this article, we will delve into the history of the Thirty Years' War, the circumstances surrounding the Peace of Westphalia, and its impact on modern international relations.   ☞ Read the full article

 

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: THE VIETNAM WAR


THE VIETNAM WAR ERA: 1955 - 1975 · Published 24 September 2023 at 2:02pm EDT · COMMENT

"26 October 1967: Years of Enduring Torment: Lieutenant Commander John McCain, USN Shot Down over Hanoi"

ABOVE: Lieutenant John McCain (O3) with his squadron. This United States Congress image is in the public domain. 

Known in recent years before his death in 2018 as a 'maverick' politician, the late Arizona senator was a U.S. Navy pilot whose five-and-a-half year struggle as a POW in North Vietnam became legendary. John Sidney McCain III was born on 29 August 1936, in the Panama Canal Zone. Growing up in a military family, he was exposed to the navy life at an early age. McCain's father and grandfather were both four-star admirals in the U.S. Navy, and he followed their footsteps to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, where he graduated in 1958. His father John S. McCain Jr. reached the rank of admiral and served in World War II, Korean War, and the Vietnam War. His grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. served in both World War I and II. During the Vietnam War, he volunteered for combat duty and served as a ground-attack pilot.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: NORTH AFRICA CAMPAIGN


NORTH AFRICA CAMPAIGN · Published 11 Nov 2022 at 2:45pm EDT · COMMENT

"8-16 November 1942: Operation Torch: The Allied Invasion of North Africa"

ABOVE: Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless scout bombers and Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters on the flight deck of USS Santee (ACV-29) during Operation Torch. Note the yellow Operation Torch markings visible around the fuselage stars of some of these airplanes. Also note the distance and target information temporarily marked on the carrier's flight deck (80-K-15250). In the Public Domain; click to enlarge.

Initiated in November 1942, Operation Torch was conceived as a grand strategy to diminish Axis forces’ engagement on the Eastern Front, thereby alleviating the escalating pressure on the Soviet Union. This ambitious offensive represented a strategic compromise between the United States and Great Britain, with British authorities espousing apprehensions that a direct American-supported landing in Northern Europe would precipitate a premature and potentially catastrophic engagement. The operation was meticulously orchestrated to execute a pincer movement. Tasked with establishing bridgeheads on both the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts were the U.S. Western Task Force—targeting Safi, Fedala, and Mehdia–Port Lyautey in Morocco—and the Anglo-American Center and Eastern Task Forces—aiming for Oran and Algiers in Algeria, respectively. Complementing these efforts was a battalion-level airborne operation near Oran, designed to secure two strategic airfields. The overarching aim was to forge a second front that would be detrimental to the Axis forces occupied with British opposition in Libya and Egypt. Prevailing over resistance posed by Vichy French forces, which were ostensibly neutral yet potentially sympathetic to German interests, was paramount.   ☞ Read the full article

CENTURIES OF WAR CALENDAR: THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953


THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953 · Published 11 Aug 2023 at 8:21pm EDT · COMMENT

"27 November 1950: The Frozen Chosin; The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir Begins"

ABOVE: Marines Clear a Ridge. 6 December 1950. Infantry of RCT-7 moving up a ridge to clear it of enemy." From the Oliver P. Smith Collection (COLL/213), Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH.

The Battle of Chosin Reservoir took place in the harsh and freezing winter of 1950, when the People’s Volunteer Army (PVA) of China entered the war to counter the presence of United Nations Command (UNC) troops in North Korea. The Chinese force, numbering around 120,000, launched a surprise attack on the US X Corps, an element of the larger UNC contingent, that was stationed near the Chosin Reservoir. The battle had become one of the toughest and most infamous battles for the U.S. Marine Corps since World War II. Fought over brutal mountain terrain and extreme cold weather in North Korea, temperatures had reached -36 degrees Fahrenheit causing frostbite casualties. Controversy had come to shroud the fight at Chosin Reservoir, as most marines saw the drive to the Reservoir as a fatal error. Either a 'fighting retreat' or 'attack in another direction', the First Marine Division fought gallantly, fighting through seven Chinese divisions and elements of three others. "General Song's Ninth Army Group had been rendered ineffective as a fighting force. Two of his divisions were entirely destroyed, never to be seen on a battlefield again. Song lost an estimated 30,000 killed in action and 12,500 wounded. The Marines lost 750 dead, 3,000 wounded and just under 200 missing. (Sides 2018, 326-327)   ☞ Read the full article

LEYDEKKERS PHOTOGRAPHY


★ REMEMBERING D-DAY, 6 JUNE 1944 - 2024 ★

ABOVE: Point du Hoc, Normandy, France. 2 June 2024. Photo shoot and tour by Erwin Leydekkers.

Erwin Leydekkers' Portfolio:

American Cemetery Normandy · Auschwitz Birkenau · The Bedford Boys · Belgium · Berchtesgaden and The Eagle's Nest · Buchenwald · Dieppe, France · Equipment · Finland · Germany · The Great War · Holland · The Holocaust · Hong Kong · Italy · Juno Beach · La Cambe German War Cemetery · Landsberg Prison · Battle of Monte Cassino · Militracks 2023 · Museums · Netherlands · Normandy 2023 · Normandy 2024 · Normandy, France ·· Omaha Beach · Operation Market Garden · Pointe du Hoc · Resistance Museum (Verzetsmuseum Amsterdam) · The Somme · Spottinger Cemetery · Vimy Ridge · Waterloo · War Museum Medemblik · World War II Veterans

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Scott Lyons posted a discussion in Modern War and Armed Conflict
The 2021 Kabul airport attack is recorded as one of the most lethal suicide bombings in Afghanistan's history. The assault resulted in the death of at least 183 individuals, comprising 170 Afghan civilians and 13 U.S. military personnel. The Islamic State – Khorasan Province (ISIS-K) claimed responsibility for the attack. It marked the first U.S. military fatalities in the War in Afghanistan since February 2020 and significantly hindered the evacuation operations underway in the nation. 
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Brian Todd Carey’s discussion was featured in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
In 149 BCE the Roman Republic initiated a third and final Punic war against its long-time rival, Carthage, culminating in an event rare in history: the eradication of an entire civilization.  Unlike the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) between Rome and Carthage which lasted twenty-three years and seventeen years respectively and involved campaigns throughout the Western Mediterranean, the Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) lasted only four years and was fought…
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Scott Lyons liked Brian Todd Carey's discussion Focus on Siegecraft: “The Roman Siege and Storm of Carthage during the Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE” in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
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Jim Gallen’s discussion was featured in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
Casemate's "Revolutionary Forts: New York" is an illustrated history and travel guidebook. It features 23 forts, spread along Long Island, the Hudson, Delaware, and Mohawk Rivers and Lake Champlain. Some are famous and well preserved, like Fort Ticonderoga, others are obscure and have disappeared without a trace, like Fort Defiance.
After the title page featuring a modern photograph of French Castle at Fort Niagara, this oversized work commences with a timeline running from the building of the…
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Scott Lyons liked Jim Gallen's discussion Revolutionary War Forts: New York by Michael Garlock in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
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Jim Gallen posted a discussion in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
Casemate's "Revolutionary Forts: New York" is an illustrated history and travel guidebook. It features 23 forts, spread along Long Island, the Hudson, Delaware, and Mohawk Rivers and Lake Champlain. Some are famous and well preserved, like Fort Ticonderoga, others are obscure and have disappeared without a trace, like Fort Defiance.
After the title page featuring a modern photograph of French Castle at Fort Niagara, this oversized work commences with a timeline running from the building of the…
Jul 13
Brian Todd Carey posted a discussion in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
In 149 BCE the Roman Republic initiated a third and final Punic war against its long-time rival, Carthage, culminating in an event rare in history: the eradication of an entire civilization.  Unlike the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) between Rome and Carthage which lasted twenty-three years and seventeen years respectively and involved campaigns throughout the Western Mediterranean, the Third Punic War (149-146 BCE) lasted only four years and was fought…
Jul 13
Jim Gallen’s discussion was featured in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
War History Network members often look for the story behind the headlines and "George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved the American Revolution" takes the reader behind the shades into the world of espionage.
The heart of the story is the Culper Ring that gathered information from their British customers and acquaintances in New York that was surreptitiously transmitted to General Washington as he sought to recapture the city. So secret was their identity, even to Washington,…
Jul 12
Scott Lyons liked Jim Gallen's discussion George Washington's Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved The American Revolution by Brian Kilmeade and Don Yaeger in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
Jul 12
Erwin Leydekkers posted a photo
Struikelstenen 
Jul 12
Jim Gallen posted a discussion in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
War History Network members often look for the story behind the headlines and "George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved the American Revolution" takes the reader behind the shades into the world of espionage.
The heart of the story is the Culper Ring that gathered information from their British customers and acquaintances in New York that was surreptitiously transmitted to General Washington as he sought to recapture the city. So secret was their identity, even to Washington,…
Jul 10
Erwin Leydekkers replied to Scott Lyons's discussion "6 June 1944: D-Day Through Different Lenses" by Scott Lyons in D-Day and the War in Western Europe
"Will post some more pictures of Normandy"
Jul 8
Benjamin J. Swenson’s discussion was featured in American Revolutionary War, War of 1812 and 19th Century Conflict
In the summer of 1847 at the height of the Mexican-American War President James K. Polk sent a mounted regiment of Texas Rangers under Colonel John Coffee “Jack” Hays to Mexico to confront guerrillas attacking US Army convoys between Mexico City and Veracruz. That force, which contributed to lifting a siege against a small US Army garrison in the city of Puebla, was sent in response to a request submitted by General Winfield Scott, who went on to seize the capital in September. What Scott did…
Jul 6
Scott Lyons liked Benjamin J. Swenson's discussion Texas Rangers, Presidential War Powers, and Mexico City Campaign, 1847–8 (Part 3) in American Revolutionary War, War of 1812 and 19th Century Conflict
Jul 6
Benjamin J. Swenson posted a discussion in American Revolutionary War, War of 1812 and 19th Century Conflict
In the summer of 1847 at the height of the Mexican-American War President James K. Polk sent a mounted regiment of Texas Rangers under Colonel John Coffee “Jack” Hays to Mexico to confront guerrillas attacking US Army convoys between Mexico City and Veracruz. That force, which contributed to lifting a siege against a small US Army garrison in the city of Puebla, was sent in response to a request submitted by General Winfield Scott, who went on to seize the capital in September. What Scott did…
Jul 5
Brian Todd Carey’s discussion was featured in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
Like its mortal enemy Rome, Carthage was both a city and an empire, famous throughout the Mediterranean for its material wealth, strong thalassocracy, and the strength of the walls protecting its capital and namesake located in the center of the coast of the Gulf of Tunis in what is today a seaside suburb of modern Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. The site chosen for Carthage (Kart-hadasht in Phoenician, Karchedon in Greek, and Carthago in Latin) was on a triangular peninsula covered with low…
Jul 4
Scott Lyons liked Brian Todd Carey's discussion Focus on Fortifications: “The Walls of Carthage and Its Double Harbor” in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
Jul 4
Brian Todd Carey posted a discussion in Prof. Brian Todd Carey's Classical Military History, c.1000 BCE-500 CE
Like its mortal enemy Rome, Carthage was both a city and an empire, famous throughout the Mediterranean for its material wealth, strong thalassocracy, and the strength of the walls protecting its capital and namesake located in the center of the coast of the Gulf of Tunis in what is today a seaside suburb of modern Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. The site chosen for Carthage (Kart-hadasht in Phoenician, Karchedon in Greek, and Carthago in Latin) was on a triangular peninsula covered with low…
Jun 30
Jim Gallen’s discussion was featured in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
I opened King John expecting to add to what I knew from old movies, that he was a disgruntled usurper who had to face his brother, Richard the Lionhearted, when Richard returned from captivity after leading a Crusade, who was eventually forced to sign the Magna Carta by rebellious nobles.  I discovered this and much more.  In Marc Morris has woven a biography of a Medieval warrior king, into an account of warfare in the England and France of his day. 
John was one of the kings “who never should…
Jun 29
Scott Lyons liked Jim Gallen's discussion King John: Treachery and Tyranny in Medieval England; Road to Magna Carta by Marc Morris in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
Jun 29
Jim Gallen posted a discussion in The Reader's Corner: Book Reviews
I opened King John expecting to add to what I knew from old movies, that he was a disgruntled usurper who had to face his brother, Richard the Lionhearted, when Richard returned from captivity after leading a Crusade, who was eventually forced to sign the Magna Carta by rebellious nobles.  I discovered this and much more.  In Marc Morris has woven a biography of a Medieval warrior king, into an account of warfare in the England and France of his day. 
John was one of the kings “who never should…
Jun 29
Richard Bluttal is now a member of War History Network
Jun 28
Erwin Leydekkers posted photos
Jun 24
Scott Lyons replied to Scott Lyons's discussion "6 June 1944: D-Day Through Different Lenses" by Scott Lyons in D-Day and the War in Western Europe
"You're welcome Erwin. Thank you for your excellent photgraphy. We can't begin to express our gratitude and appreciation."
Jun 22
Scott Lyons liked Erwin Leydekkers's photo
Jun 22
More…

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BOOK REVIEWS


George Washington's Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved The American Revolution

by Brian Kilmeade and Don Yaeger

Posted by Jim Gallen on July 10, 2024 at 8:13pm

War History Network members often look for the story behind the headlines and "George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spy Ring That Saved the American Revolution" takes the reader behind the shades into the world of espionage.  ☞  The full review ·  All book reviews

TOP RELEASES OF 2024


The Light of Battle: Eisenhower, D-Day, and the Birth of the American Superpower

by Michel Paradis (Author)

Publisher: Mariner Books. Publication date: 4 June 2024. Hardcover, 528 pages. ISBN-10 0358682371

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From the publisher: On June 6, 1944, General Dwight Eisenhower addressed the thousands of American troops preparing to invade Normandy, exhorting them to embrace the “Great Crusade” they faced. Then, in a fleeting moment alone, he drafted a resignation letter in case the invasion failed. In The Light of Battle, Michel Paradis, acclaimed author of Last Mission to Tokyo, paints a vivid portrait of Dwight Eisenhower as he learns to navigate the crosscurrents of diplomacy, politics, strategy, family, and fame with the fate of the free world hanging in the balance." 


American Civil Wars: A Continental History, 1850-1873

by Alan Taylor (Author)

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company. Publication date: 21 May 2024. Hardcover, 560 pages. ISBN-10 1324035285

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From the publisher: "A masterful history of the Civil War and its reverberations across the continent by a two-time Pulitzer Prize winner. In a fast-paced narrative of soaring ideals and sordid politics, of civil war and foreign invasion, the award-winning historian Alan Taylor presents a pivotal twenty-year period in which North America’s three largest countries―the United States, Mexico, and Canada―all transformed themselves into nations." 


Fifty-Three Days on Starvation Island: The World War II Battle That Saved Marine Corps Aviation

by John R Bruning (Author)

Publisher: Hachette Books. Publication date: 14 May 2024. Hardcover, 528 pages. ISBN-10-0316508659

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From the publisher: "On August 20, 1942, twelve Marine dive-bombers and nineteen Marine fighters landed at Guadalcanal. Their mission: defeat the Japanese navy and prevent it from sending more men and supplies to "Starvation Island," as Guadalcanal was nicknamed. The Japanese were turning the remote, jungle-covered mountain in the south Solomon Islands into an air base from which they could attack the supply lines between the U.S. and Australia." 


Warfare in the Age of Crusades: Europe

by Brian Todd Carey (Author) and Joshua B Allfree 

Publication date: 18 January 2024 by Pen & Sword Military. 272 pages, hardcover.

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From the publisher: "Warfare in the Age of Crusades: Europe explores in fascinating detail the key campaigns, battles and sieges that shaped the crusading period in Europe during the Middle Ages, giving special attention to military technologies, tactics and strategies. Key personalities and political factors are addressed, including the role of the papal monarchy in initiating the crusading expeditions and the use of crusade in the Christianization of the Baltic region and against heresies in Europe." 


The Dawn of Guerrilla Warfare: Why the Tactics of Insurgents against Napoleon Failed in the US Mexican War

by Benjamin J Swenson (Author)

Publication date: 30 January 2024 by Pen and Sword Military. Hardcover, 232 pages.

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From the publisher: "While one military empire in Europe lay in ruins, another awakened in North America. During the Peninsular War (1808-1814) the Spanish launched an unprecedented guerrilla insurgency undermining Napoleon’s grip on that state and ultimately hastening the destruction of the French Army in Europe. The advent of this novel “system” of warfare ushered in an era of military studies on the use of unconventional strategies in military campaigns and changed the modern rules of war." 


Gustavus v Wallenstein: Military Revolution, Rivalry and Tragedy in the Thirty Years War

by John Pike (Author)

Publisher: Pen and Sword Military. Publication date: May 31, 2024. Hardcover, 544 pages. ISBN-10 1399012657

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From the publisher, "The conflict, personal rivalry and contrast in personality, generalship and command, between the two iconic commanders in the Thirty Years War, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden for the Protestant powers, and Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland. More than just commanders at the tactical level they were statesmen, military organizers and strategists on a continental scale. Both commanders represented the 17th-century ‘military revolution in action’". 


This Fierce People: The Untold Story of America's Revolutionary War in the South

by Alan Pell Crawford (Author)

Publisher: Knopf. Publication date: July 2, 2024. Hardcover, 400 pages. ISBN-10 0593318501

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From the publisher, "The famous battles that form the backbone of the story put forth of American independence—at Lexington and Concord, Brandywine, Germantown, Saratoga, and Monmouth—while crucial, did not lead to the surrender at Yorktown. It was in the three-plus years between Monmouth and Yorktown that the war was won."


The House of War: The Struggle between Christendom and Islam

by Simon Mayall (Author)

Publisher: Osprey Publishing. Publication date: September 10, 2024. Hardcover, 352 pages. ISBN-10 1472864336

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From the publisher, "From the taking of Jerusalem in the 7th century AD 638 by Caliph Umar, to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I, Christian popes, emperors and kings, and Muslim caliphs and sultans were locked in a 1300-year battle for political, military, ideological, economic and religious supremacy."


Taking London: Winston Churchill and the Fight to Save Civilization

by Martin Dugard (Author)

Publisher: Dutton. Publication date: June 11, 2024. Hardcover, 352 pages. ISBN-10 0593473213

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From the publisher, "Great Britain, summer 1940. The Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin. Adolf Hitler’s powerful armies control Europe. England stands alone against this juggernaut, the whole world knowing it is only a matter of time before Nazi Germany unleashes its military might on the island nation. In London, a new prime minister named Winston Churchill is determined to defeat the Nazi menace, no matter the costs."


Why War?

by Richard Overy Ph.D. (Author)

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company. Publication date: June 4, 2024. Hardcover, 304 pages. ISBN-10 1324021748

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From the publisher: "Richard Overy is not the first scholar to take up the title question. In 1931, at the request of the League of Nations, Albert Einstein asked Sigmund Freud to collaborate on a short work examining whether there was “a way of delivering mankind from the menace of war.” Published the next year as a pamphlet entitled Why War?, it conveyed Freud’s conclusion that the “death drive” made any deliverance impossible―the psychological impulse to destruction was universal in the animal kingdom." 


The Eastern Front: A History of the Great War, 1914-1918

by Nick Lloyd (Author)

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company. Publication date: August 27, 2024. Hardcover, 608 pages. ISBN-10 1324092718

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From the publisher: "Writing in the 1920s, Winston Churchill claimed that the First World War on the Eastern Front was “incomparably the greatest war in history.” In The Eastern Front, the second volume of his trilogy on the war, historian Nick Lloyd demonstrates that the conflict in the East was more fluid than that in the West, but no less deadly. Colliding on battlefronts up to three times larger than those in France and Belgium, the armies of Russia, Austro-Hungary, Germany, and the Balkan states fought on a vast scale and in a way that would have been unthinkable on the stalemated Western Front."


We Dared to Fly: Dangerous Secret Missions During the Vietnam War

by William Reeder Jr. (Author)

Publisher: Lyons Press. Publication date: Novermber 5, 2024. Hardcover, 272 pages. ISBN-10 1493085301

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From the publisher: "We Dared to Fly is the true story of the young men who risked their lives daily on classified missions deep behind enemy lines during the Vietnam War. The Army aviators and enlisted observers assigned to the 131st Surveillance Airplane Company, call sign Iron Spud, flew the Grumman OV-1 Mohawk into the jaws of death to capture timely intelligence for top military decision makers and senior national officials. The story is the author’s account of his assignment to that special mission unit, of the history that came before and the events that unfolded while he was there." 


Emperor of the Seas: Kublai Khan and the Making of China

by Jack Weatherford (Author)

Publisher: Bloomsbury Continuum. Publication date: October 29, 2024. Hardcover, 352 pages. ISBN-10 1399417738

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From the publisher: "Genghis Khan built a formidable land empire, but he never crossed the sea. Yet by the time his grandson Khublai Khan had defeated the last vestiges of the Song empire and established the Yuan dynasty in 1279, the Mongols controlled the most powerful navy in the world. How did a nomad come to conquer China and master the sea? Based on ten years of research and a lifetime of immersion in Mongol culture and tradition, Emperor of the Seas brings this little-known story vibrantly to life." 


Alexander at the End of the World: The Forgotten Final Years of Alexander the Great

by Rachel Kousser (Author)

Publisher: Mariner Books. Publication date: July 16, 2024. Hardcover, 432 pages. ISBN-10 006286968X

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From the publisher: "By 330 B.C.E., Alexander the Great had reached the pinnacle of success. Or so it seemed. He had defeated the Persian ruler Darius III and seized the capital city of Persepolis. His exhausted and traumatized soldiers were ready to return home to Macedonia. Yet Alexander had other plans. He was determined to continue heading east to Afghanistan in search of his ultimate goal: to reach the end of the world." 


1217: The Battles that Saved England

by Catherine Hanley (Author), Tina Ross (Cartographer)

Publisher: Osprey Publishing. Publication date: May 7, 2024. Hardcover, 304 pages. ISBN-13 978-1472860873

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From the publisher: "In 1215 King John had agreed to the terms of Magna Carta, but he then reneged on his word, plunging the kingdom into war. The rebellious barons offered the throne to the French prince Louis and set off the chain of events that almost changed the course of English history. Louis first arrived in May 1216, was proclaimed king in the heart of London, and by the autumn had around half of England under his control. However, the choice of a French prince had enormous repercussions: now not merely an internal rebellion, but a war in which the defenders were battling to prevent a foreign takeover." 


Warsaw Testament

by Rokhl Auerbach (Author), Samuel Kassow (Translator)

Publisher: White Goat Press. Publication date: May 7, 2024. Hardcover, 423 pages. ISBN-13 979-8988677390

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From the publisher: "Born in Lanowitz, a small village in rural Podolia, Rokhl Auerbach was a journalist, literary critic, memoirist, and a member of the Warsaw Yiddish literary community before the Holocaust. Upon the German invasion and occupation of Poland in 1939, she was tasked by historian and social activist Emanuel Ringelblum to run a soup kitchen for the starving inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto and later to join his top-secret ghetto archive, the Oyneg Shabes."


Historicism and Its Problems: The Logical Problem of the Philosophy of History

by Ernst Troeltsch (Author), Garrett E. Paul (Translator), James David Reid (Translator)

Publisher: Fortress Press. Publication date: October 1, 2024. Hardcover, 925 pages. ISBN-13 979-8889831402

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From the publisher: "This is a translation of Ernst Troeltsch's last (1923) major work. It is an exhaustive study of the methods of historiography and of German, French, English, and Italian philosophies of history during the nineteenth century. It is motivated by the purpose of developing the proper concept of historical development, for overcoming "bad" historicism (i.e., unlimited relativism) with "good" historicism (with relativity, not relativism), and determining how values drawn from history can be used to shape the future. It concludes with a sketch of the unwritten second volume on the material philosophy of history."


Arming the World: American Gun-Makers in the Gilded Age

by Geoffrey S. Stewart (Author)

Publisher: Lyons Press. Publication date: April 23, 2024. Hardcover, 368 pages. ISBN-10 1493078585

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From the publisher: "Arming the World tells the story of the American small arms industry from the early 1800’s through the post-Civil War era. Almost from the beginning, the United States produced arms in new, and radically different, ways, relying upon machinery to mass produce guns when others still made them by hand. Leveraging their technological advantage, American gun-makers produced guns with interchangeable parts and perfected new types of small arms, ranging from revolvers to repeating rifles. The federal government’s staggering purchases of arms during the Civil War stimulated the development of fast-firing breech-loading rifles and metal-cased ammunition."


Mr. Churchill in the White House: The Untold Story of a Prime Minister and Two Presidents

by Robert Schmuhl (Author)

Publisher: Liveright. Publication date: July 2, 2024. Hardcover, 352 pages. ISBN-10 1324093420

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From the publisher: "Scores of biographies have been written about Winston Churchill, yet none examine his frequent, sometimes furtive, trips to the White House, where he resided for weeks on end―the (often unclothed) visitor who “dropped out of the sky.” These extended visits during his two terms as prime minister were spirited, even entertaining, occasions. Yet, in retrospect, they take on a new level of diplomatic significance, demonstrating just how influential a foreign leader can become in shaping American foreign policy." 


The Vietnam War: A Military History

by Geoffrey Wawro (Author)

Publisher: Basic Books. Publication date: October 1, 2024. Hardcover, 656 pages. ISBN-10 1541606086

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From the publisher: "The Vietnam War cast a shadow over the American psyche from the moment it began. In its time it sparked budget deficits, campus protests, and an erosion of US influence around the world. Long after the last helicopter evacuated Saigon, Americans have continued to battle over whether it was ever a winnable war. Based on thousands of pages of military, diplomatic, and intelligence documents, Geoffrey Wawro’s The Vietnam War offers a definitive account of a war of choice that was doomed from its inception." 


Hitler's Deserters: Breaking Ranks with the Wehrmacht

by Douglas Carl Peifer (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: January 7, 2025. Hardcover, 336 pages. ISBN-10 0197539661

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From the publisher: "The German military executed between 18,000 and 22,000 of its personnel in World War II on the charges of desertion and "undermining the military spirt." This book examines who these Wehrmacht deserters were, why they deserted, what punishment they could expect, and how German military justice operated. The German army was not apolitical, but rather a pillar of the Nazi state." 


The Deerfield Massacre: A Surprise Attack, a Forced March, and the Fight for Survival in Early America

by James L. Swanson (Author)

Publisher: Scribner. Publication date: February 27, 2024. Hardcover, 336 pages. ISBN-10 1501108166

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From the publisher: "Once it was one of the most infamous events in early American history. Today, it has been nearly forgotten. In an obscure, two-hundred-year-old museum in a little town in western Massachusetts there stands what once was the most revered relic from the history of early New England: the massive, tomahawk-scarred door that came to symbolize the notorious Deerfield Massacre of 1704." 


A Day in September: The Battle of Antietam and the World It Left Behind

by Stephen Budiansky (Author)

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company. Publication date: September 3, 2024. Hardcover, 304 pages. ISBN-10 1324035757

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From the publisher: "The Battle of Antietam, which took place on September 17, 1862, remains the single bloodiest day in America’s history. As a turning point in the Civil War, the narrow Union victory was the key catalyst for Lincoln to issue his Emancipation Proclamation. Yet Antietam was not only a battle that dramatically changed the fortunes and meaning of the war; it also changed America in ways we feel today." 


Making Makers: The Past, the Present, and the Study of War

by Michael P. M. Finch (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: July 11, 2024. Hardcover, 288 pages. ISBN -10 0192867121

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From the publisher: "Making Makers presents a comprehensive history of a seminal work of scholarship which has exerted a persistent attraction for scholars of war and strategy: Makers of Modern Strategy. It reveals the processes by which scholars conceived and devised the book, considering both successful and failed attempts to make and remake the work across the twentieth century, and illuminating its impact and legacy. It explains how and why these influential volumes took their particular forms, unearths the broader intellectual processes that shaped them, and reflects on the academic parameters of the study of war in the twentieth century."


The First Cold War: Anglo-Russian Relations in the 19th Century

by Barbara Emerson (Author)

Publisher: Hurst. Publication date: August 1, 2024. Hardcover, 391 pages. ISBN -10 180526057X

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From the publisher: "Britain and Russia maintained a frosty civility for a few years after Napoleon's defeat in 1815. But, by the 1820s, their relations degenerated into constant acrimonious rivalry over Persia, the Ottoman Empire, Central Asia--the Great Game--and, towards the end of the century, East Asia. The First Cold War presents for the first time the Russian perspective on this 'game', drawing on the archives of the Tsars' Imperial Ministry." 


Henry V: The Astonishing Triumph of England's Greatest Warrior King

by Dan Jones (Author)

Publisher: Viking. Publication date: October 1, 2024. Hardcover, 432 pages. ISBN -10 0593652738

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From the publisher: "In 1413, when Henry V ascended to the English throne, his kingdom was hopelessly torn apart by political faction and partisanship. Public finances and law and order were in a state of crisis. Pirates tormented the coast; plots, conspiracies, and heresy threatened society. The lingering effects of the worst pandemic in human history continued to menace daily life. And then, in less than ten years, Henry turns it all around. By common consensus in his day, and for hundreds of years afterward, Henry was the greatest medieval king that ever lived."


The Crusader States and their Neighbours: A Military History, 1099-1187

by Dr Nicholas Morton (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: March 14, 2024. Hardcover, 320 pages. ISBN -10 019887880X

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From the publisher: "The Crusader States and their Neighbours (Winner, The Verbruggen Prize, The Society for Medieval Military History) explores the military history of the Medieval Near East, piecing together the fault-lines of conflict which entangled this much-contested region. This was an area where ethnic, religious, dynastic, and commercial interests collided and the causes of war could be numerous. Conflicts persisted for decades and were fought out between many groups including Kurds, Turks, Armenians, Arabs, and the crusaders themselves."


Beyond Ukraine: Debating the Future of War

by Tim Sweijs (Editor), Jeffrey H. Michaels (Editor), Christopher Coker (Afterword)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: August 1, 2024. Hardcover, 432 pages. ISBN -10 0197790240

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From the publisher: "Across the ages, policymakers, military professionals and scholars have sought answers to the question: what does the future of war look like? Often, when the next war does come along, there is a significant chasm between expectations and reality. Today, some believe that the future of war will be radically different from past conflicts. In recent years, visionaries have conjured up images of robots doing battle on isolated fields and cyber-warriors crafting weapons from zeros and ones." 


44 Days in Prague: The Runciman Mission and the Race to Save Europe

by Ann Shukman (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: May 1, 2024. Hardcover, 288 pages. ISBN -10 0197786359

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From the publisher: "After discovering that her grandmother had pro-German sympathies, Ann Shukman resolved to investigate her grandfather Walter Runciman's 1938 Mission to Prague. This government-sponsored British delegation sought to broker peace between the Czechoslovak republic and its Sudeten German minority--a dispute that Hitler was aggravating with virulent anti-Czech propaganda and threats of invasion."


Harfleur to Hamburg: Five Centuries of English and British Violence in Europe

by DJB Trim (Editor), Brendan Simms (Editor)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: June 15, 2024. Hardcover, 336 pages. ISBN -10 0197784208

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From the publisher: "Britain has historically been seen as an upholder of international norms, at least in its relations with western powers. This has often been contrasted with the violence perpetrated in colonial contexts on other continents. What is often missed, however, is the extent to which the state with its capital in London--first England, then Great Britain--inflicted extreme violence on its European neighbors, even when still using the rhetoric of neighborliness and friendship."


The Compleat Victory: Saratoga and the American Revolution (Pivotal Moments in American History)

by Kevin J. Weddle (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: May 21, 2024. Softcover, 544 pages. ISBN -13 978-0197695166

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From the publisher: "In The Compleat Victory, award-winning military historian Kevin J. Weddle traces an epic panorama of strategy and chance--from London, to Quebec, to Philadelphia, to New York--that ultimately led to the decisive conclusion at Saratoga. In the late summer and fall of 1777, after two years of indecisive fighting on both sides, the outcome of the American War of Independence hung in the balance. Having successfully expelled the Americans from Canada in 1776, the British were determined to end the rebellion the following year and devised what they believed a war-winning strategy, sending General John Burgoyne south to rout the Americans and take Albany."


Conquering the Ocean: The Roman Invasion of Britain (Ancient Warfare and Civilization)

by Richard Hingley (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: June 1, 2024. Softcover, 336 pages. ISBN -13 978-0197776896

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From the publisher: "Why did Julius Caesar come to Britain? His own account suggests that he invaded to quell a resistance of Gallic sympathizers in the region of modern-day Kent -- but there must have been personal and divine aspirations behind the expeditions in 55 and 54 BCE. To the ancients, the Ocean was a body of water that circumscribed the known world, separating places like Britain from terra cognita, and no one, not even Alexander the Great, had crossed it. While Caesar came and saw, he did not conquer. In the words of the historian Tacitus, "he revealed, rather than bequeathed, Britain to Rome." 


Endgame 1944: How the Soviet Army Won World War Two

by Jonathan Dimbleby (Author)

Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication date: June 3, 2024. Hardcover, 640 pages. ISBN -10 0197765319

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From the publisher: "The year 1944 was the turning point of World War Two, and nowhere was this more evident than on the Eastern Front. For three years, following the onslaught of the German Army during Operation Barbarossa in June 1941, the Red Army had retreated and then eventually held, fighting to a stalemate while the Germans occupied and ravaged large parts of the Soviet Union and its republics. Finally, following the breaking of the German siege of Leningrad in January 1944, Stalin and his generals were able to consider striking back." 


Aces at Kursk: The Battle for Aerial Supremacy on the Eastern Front, 1943

by Christopher A Lawrence (Author)

Publication date: 8 March 2024 by Casemate. Hardcover, 392 pages.

Preorder from Amazon

From the publisher: "The Battle of Kursk in July 1943 is known for being the largest tank battle in history. A Russian victory, it marked the decisive end of the German offensive capability on the Eastern Front and set the scene for the Soviet successes that followed. While many have focused on the tank engagements, especially the Battle of Prokhorovka, there was an intense air battle going on overhead that was bigger than the Battle of Britain. As part of the German offensive, the Luftwaffe’s VIII Air Corps deployed around 1,100 aircraft in the south alone, while the opposing Soviet Second and Seventeenth air armies initially deployed over 1,600 aircraft." 


Generals and Admirals of the Third Reich For Country or Fuehrer: Volume 1: A–G

By James "Jack" Webb

Publication date: February 2024 by Casemate. Hardcover, 384 pages.

Preorder at Casemate

From the publisher: "This three-volume set offers concise biographical information for over five thousand generals and admirals of the Third Reich. It covers all branches of service, ordered alphabetically and provides a brief, though scholarly, overview of each individual, including personal details and dates for all attachments to unit, and medals awarded, offering a readily accessible go-to reference work for all World War II researchers and historians. In addition to the biographic information, each volume includes extensive appendices. The books are packed with information on these senior officers of the Third Reich, many of whom are little documented in the English language."


World of War: A History of American Warfare from Jamestown to the War on Terror

by William Nester (Author)

Publication date: January 16, 2024 by Stackpole Books. Hardcover, 472 pages.

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From the publisher: "World of War is an epic journey through America’s array of wars for diverse reasons with diverse results over the course of its existence. It reveals the crucial effects of brilliant, mediocre, and dismal military and civilian leaders; the dynamic among America’s expanding economic power, changing technologies, and the types and settings of its wars; and the human, financial, and moral costs to the nation, its allies, and its enemies. Nester explores the violent conflicts of the United States—on land, at sea, and in the air—with meticulous scholarship, thought-provoking analysis, and vivid prose."


A Nasty Little War: The Western Intervention into the Russian Civil War

by Anna Reid (Author)

Publication date: February 6, 2024 by Basic Books. Hardcover, 400 pages.

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From the publisher: "Overlapping with and overshadowed by the First World War, the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War was one of the most ambitious military ventures of the twentieth century. Launched in the summer of 1918, it drew in 180,000 troops from fifteen different countries in theaters ranging from the Caspian Sea to the Arctic, and from Poland to the Pacific. Though little remembered today, its consequences stoked global political turmoil for decades to come."


General J. E. B. Stuart: The Soldier and the Man

by Edward G. Longacre (Author)

Publication date: February 15, 2024 by Savas Beatie. Hardcover, 504 pages.

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From the publisher: "Fifteen years have passed since the publication of the last full-length biography of Jeb Stuart. Several have appeared during the last century, each lauding his contributions to Confederate fortunes in the Eastern Theater. These studies follow a familiar postwar tradition established by hero-worshipping subordinates portraying its subject as a model of chivalric conduct with a romantic’s outlook on life and a sense of fair dealing and goodwill, even toward his enemy. General J. E. B. Stuart: The Soldier and the Man, by award-winning author Edward Longacre, is the first balanced, fully detailed, and thoroughly scrutinized life of the Civil War’s most famous cavalryman."